In the an even more great-grained analysis, % rule transform have been further examined about your face term playing with SPSS twenty-five
New fMRI analysis was in fact filed playing with a great step three-tesla whole-human anatomy MRI system (Philips Achieva step 3.0T Tx) and you may an excellent thirty two-route Feel head coil. This new MRI always check been with high-quality T1-adjusted anatomical gradient echo check (three-dimensional TFE: matrix 3 hundred ? 235 mm dos , reconstructed in order to 320 ? 320 mm 2 , field-of-examine 240 ? 188.8 ? 192 mm 3 , in-airplanes quality 0.8 ? 0.8 mm 2 , slice density 0.8 mm, remodeled to help you a last voxel measurements of 0.75 ? 0.75 ? 0.8 mm?). As a whole, 240 cuts within the transverse orientation were received (TR = 10 ms, TE = cuatro.6 ms, flip position ? = 8°, Experience factor RRL = dos.5 and RFH = 2.0). Functional investigation during the empathy for discomfort paradigm have been gathered using T2*-adjusted echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences. Thirty-a few incisions had been obtained inside the interleaved purchase synchronous into the bicommissural airplane. To obtain blood-clean air top-mainly based (BOLD) contrasts, we made use of an allergy encrypted single-take to echo-planar imaging protocol (SENSE-sshEPI: number of cuts thirty-two, matrix 80 ? 80 mm 2 , reconstructed so you’re able to 112 ? 112 mm 2 , field-of-evaluate 220 ? 220 mm 2 , in-airplane solution 2.75 ? dos.75 mm 2 , cut density step 3 mm with 1 mm pit, remodeled to help you a last voxel size of 1.96 ? 1.96 ? step three mm step three , TR = dos,one hundred thousand ms, TE = 29 ms, flip perspective ? = 90°, Sense foundation Rap = 2.0). The newest EPI succession already been that have four goes through which were thrown away due so you’re able to saturation effects. Every work with consisted of 335 volumes and you may takes approximately eleven minute. In total, users finished five researching runs.
To deal with the still existing multiple testing problem and in accordance with the developers of the WFU PickAtlas software, peak voxel FWE correction was applied and only activation surviving a threshold of p[FWE] < 0
The collected fMRI data were preprocessed and analyzed statistically using SPM12 (Wellcome Trust Center for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK; and MATLAB 7.11 (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA). Preprocessing of the data implies slice timing correction, realignment, coregistration, and normalization with a T1 template provided by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). The images were smoothed with an isotropic 8-mm full-width half-maximum Gaussian kernel, and the final voxel size of resampled images was 2 ? 2 ? 2 mm?. We applied a high-pass filter (cutoff, 100 s) to eliminate low-frequency signal drifts. Based on our previous study (30), we focused the analyses on the phase of pain/no pain perception according to the preceding emotional facial expression [e.g., (angry face+pain), (happy face+no pain), etc]. Thus, at the single subject level, regressors were combinations of pain condition, emotion, and gender. The realignment parameters were entered as regressors of no interest in the design matrix. A statistical model for each participant was calculated by convolving a hemodynamic response function with the abovementioned design (41). Subsequent statistical analysis followed the general model approach (42). As proposed by Poldrack and colleagues (43), and already used in social cognition research (44), we focused our analysis on hypothesis-driven regions of interest (ROIs) known to be involved in empathy for pain. To this end, we designed a mask containing the ROIs by using the WFU PickAtlas (45). All ROIs were chosen in accordance with a recent meta-analysis by Lamm and colleagues (26). The following ROIs were included: the anterior bilateral insula, the left medial cingulate cortex, the bilateral supramarginal gyri, the bilateral pallidum, the bilateral inferior temporal gyri, the bilateral amygdala, the left precentral gyrus, the right frontal inferior gyrus (pars opercularis), and the left thalamus. To visualize the brain areas involved in pain processing, the so-called pain matrix, we examined the T-contrast “effect of pain,” that is, [pain > no pain] collapsed over all emotions and gender using the “full factorial” option in SPM. This options shows activations with p[uncorrected] 10 voxel. 05 was considered significant. All activations were labeled according to the anatomical automatic labeling (AAL) atlas (46) implemented in the WFU PickAtlas (45). Afterward, percent signal changes from the abovementioned ROIs that showed activations were extracted using the “MarsBar” toolbox ( (47). 0. By using this localizer-based approach, we aimed to avoid the problem of “double dipping” (48). In the Supplemental Material, we show additional alternative analyses for further confirmation of the findings.